Before the 1990s, hydraulic elevators were favored by users in developed countries due to their compact structure and flexible location. On the basis of the advantages of hydraulic elevators, the machine roomless elevators use the traction drive system instead of the hydraulic transmission system, so they are superior to the hydraulic elevators in terms of structure, performance and energy saving; the machine roomless elevators save compared with the organic room (ordinary) elevators. The building space reduces the construction cost, avoids the complicated structure of the building, and makes the overall appearance of the building beautiful. Therefore, since the late 1990s, machine roomless elevators have developed rapidly at home and abroad.
In order to meet the needs of installation, maintenance, rescue operations, dynamic testing, etc., there are many differences between the control system of the machine room-less elevator and the organic room. This paper only talks about the overall requirements and characteristics of the control system of the machine roomless elevator from the perspective of the overall design and risk reduction of the machine room elevator.
1 control cabinet structure
The size of the control cabinet depends on the location of the components, except for the size of the components used. If the control cabinet is placed next to the landing door, its outer dimensions should be narrow and thin, so that its arrangement next to the landing door does not affect the movement of the landing door; if the control cabinet is placed around the drive mainframe in the hoistway, its thickness should be compared. Small to ensure that it is at a distance from moving parts in the hoistway.
1.2 cabinet door
If the control cabinet is installed outside the hoistway, the door of the control cabinet should meet the following requirements: 1 The door of the control cabinet should not be equipped with a handle to prevent unrelated personnel from pulling the handle to damage the control cabinet; 2 the lock on the control cabinet door can only The key can be opened outside, the door can be closed without a key, and an electrical safety device complying with the Clause 14.1.2 of gb 7588-1995 confirms the locked state of the door, and the elevator can only perform normal operation when the door is closed. To prevent the elevator from carrying out normal operation when the door is open; 3) The waterproof structure is used between the door and the cabinet of the control cabinet to prevent the liquid from accidentally flowing into the control cabinet when cleaning the corridor, causing electrical failure.
If the control cabinet is installed in the hoistway, the door locking device on the control cabinet should be able to be opened from the outside, and the door can be closed without a key; when the opened door enters the running area of the elevator, a gb 7588-1995 is required. The electrical safety device of Article 14.1.2 confirms the locked state of the door, and the elevator can only perform normal operation when the door is closed. In addition, if the opened door enters the running area of the elevator, the maintenance operation of the elevator can only be carried out when the door is closed, or the elevator running section is restricted to prevent the open door from operating parts in the hoistway. Hit and cause an accident.
2 Control cabinet setting parts
After the machine roomless elevator cancels the machine room, its control system has to be placed outside the hoistway or at the appropriate position in the hoistway, and its specific position is greatly affected by the position of the drive host in the hoistway.
If the control cabinet is placed next to the landing door, there should be a vertical distance between the bottom surface and the floor of the floor (at least 0.3m is recommended) to prevent water from immersing into the control cabinet when cleaning the floor or accidental running water; The renovated walls form a flat surface to prevent accidental damage to the control cabinet and to the curiosity of unrelated people.
2.2 Heat dissipation and dust prevention
In order to ensure the normal operation of the various components in the control cabinet, in addition to meeting the electrical requirements such as anti-interference, it should also be considered that the structure of the control cabinet should be conducive to the heat dissipation of the electrical components, and attention should be paid to dust prevention while considering heat dissipation. If the control cabinet is placed next to the landing door and embedded in the front wall of the shaft, and the rear of the cabinet is the main cooling surface, the rear panel should be in direct communication with the shaft. If the control cabinet is placed on the wall of the hoistway, the lower side, the side surface and the front side can be used as the heat dissipating surface, and air convection is formed in the hoistway during the operation of the elevator, which is beneficial to meet the heat dissipation requirement, but the dust should be removed from the control cabinet during maintenance.
2.3 Easy to operate
The setting position of the control cabinet should be convenient for the staff to access for installation, debugging, maintenance, rescue, testing and other operations.
3 maintenance work area
3.1 Work area
Regardless of whether the control cabinet is installed in the hoistway or outside the hoistway, there should be at least a horizontal net area with a width between the cabinet width and 0.5m and a depth of 0.7m. The net height of the net area should be at least It is 1.8m.
3.2 Work area dedicated
When the control cabinet is installed outside the hoistway and the unrelated personnel can access the above-mentioned area, the staff shall isolate the area by using a safety protection enclosure during the operation of the control cabinet. The enclosure shall be yellow in color and in obvious place. There are warning signs like "Danger! Don't get close" to protect the safety of the staff and prevent other dangers.
3.3 Maintenance platform
When the control cabinet is installed in the hoistway and needs to be maintained and inspected by means of a platform, the platform is specified in section 6.4.5 of en 81-1998/pra2:2002, so the design of the platform can be referred to the requirements of the article. However, it should be noted that the control cabinet maintenance work area should still meet the requirements of 3.1.
When the machine is being serviced or inspected from inside the car or on the car top, if any kind of out-of-control or accidental movement of the car due to maintenance or inspection may pose personal danger to the person, mechanical locking device should be used. Prevent the movement of the car.
4.1 Work area lighting
The control cabinet section and the maintenance work area shall be provided with fixed electrical lighting, and the illumination on the ground (or work area tread) shall not be less than 200 lux, and an appropriate height shall be provided at an appropriate height near the entrance of the work area. Switch to control the illumination of the area.
4.2 Lighting during power off
In the case of power failure of the power supply system, measures should be taken (such as setting a dedicated backup power supply) to meet the brightness, so that the staff can see the switches on the main power switch, emergency and test operating devices installed outside the hoistway to prevent the light from being blocked. Insufficient and cause malfunction.
Article 126.96.36.199 of gb 7588-1995 stipulates that "the floor of the machine room shall be constructed of non-slip material". Therefore, the ground (or tread) of the control cabinet maintenance work area, car top, platform and passage should be constructed of non-slip materials to prevent workers from slipping and causing danger.
The passage leading to the machine room control cabinet and the emergency test operation screen shall also meet the requirements of section 6.2.1 of gb 7588-1995 from the public road to the machine room or pulley. If a ladder is used, the provisions of 6.2.2 of gb 7588-1995 shall also be met. This is very important when designing the elevator civil layout.
7 ventilation and temperature
Regardless of whether the control cabinet is installed in the hoistway or outside the hoistway, the control cabinet section should be properly ventilated and the control cabinet should be properly protected from dust, harmful gases and moisture as much as possible. In order to ensure the normal operation of the control system, the ambient temperature in the control cabinet section should be maintained between 5 and 40 °C. The ventilation and temperature of the control cabinet section shall comply with the relevant provisions of Article 6.3.5 of gb 7588-1995.
8 main power switch
En 81-1:1998/pra2:2002 Clause 188.8.131.52 stipulates that the main power switch should be installed in the control cabinet outside the hoistway or on the emergency and test operating devices. If the emergency operation screen and the test operation screen are separate, then Set on the emergency operation screen.
If the main power switch is set in the control cabinet or in the emergency and test operating devices, it should be placed in a position that is easy to access after the cabinet (lid) door is opened; there should be a clearly defined name and operating status indication near the main power switch. There should be warning signs in the cabinet (cover) (such as: "Do not close", "Do not supply power", etc.), when the maintenance personnel disconnect the main power switch, they should be hung around the main power switch. In case other people touch, the power is supplied unexpectedly.
9 Emergency and test operating devices
Emergency and test operating devices should be located outside the hoistway. All emergency and dynamic tests of the elevator should be installed on an operating panel. Only qualified personnel should be able to access the operating screen and operate. It can also be placed in the control cabinet or as part of the control cabinet when the control cabinet is placed outside the hoistway. If the control cabinet is placed in the hoistway, then the emergency and test operating devices placed outside the hoistway are covered with a cover, and the key should be opened to unlock the cover and the cover can be locked without a key. The following operations or information shall be provided in accordance with the emergency operation screen of en 81-1:1998/pra2:2002: a) emergency operating devices complying with Article 12.5 of gb 7588-1995 and an intercom system complying with Article 184.108.40.206; b) A control device capable of dynamic testing; c) directly observing the elevator drive host or display device, providing information on the direction in which the car moves, the car reaching the unlock zone, and the car speed.
10 drive host brake test
The machine roomless elevator needs to perform a single group of separate braking tests. The safer and more convenient method is realized by using the control circuit. For example, it can be realized by a specially designed switch set on the test operation screen outside the hoistway, or if the control cabinet is set up. Outside the hoistway, short-circuit the specified, clearly marked terminals according to the operating instructions before performing the unilateral braking test of the drive unit.
11 three-way calling
The control system of the machine roomless elevator should be able to realize the three-party calling function between the control cabinet, the car and the rescue center, so as to rescue the passengers in time when the elevator fails, and the convenience and safety of the installation, commissioning and maintenance of the staff. In addition, from the perspective of operational safety, the control cabinet can also be set to talk with other parts, for example, if it is necessary to carry out rescue operation in the pit, it can be set between the control cabinet and the pit.
12 Notes, markings and operating instructions
The attention, marking and operation instructions of the machine room-less elevator shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 15 of gb 7588-1995, mainly for the following aspects: 1 The connection terminals of the circuit in the contactor, relay, fuse and control cabinet shall be based on the wiring diagram Marking; 2 Operational buttons and switches on the emergency and test operation screens should indicate the function name and position status; 3 Clear operating procedures should be set in the control cabinet or around the emergency and test operation screens to guide the staff to operate.